Advance Statements for Black African and Caribbean people
Advance Statements for Black African and Caribbean people (AdStAC) is a research project working with Black (and mixed with Black heritage) service users who have been previously detained under the Mental Health Act, their carers/supporters and mental health staff to co-produce resources for advance choice documents.
An advance choice document allows service users to have a say in how they wish to be treated during a future crisis or relapse, by making professionals aware of their advance wishes and preferences as requests and/or refusals of treatment. Research evidence (see list below) shows they can reduce detentions under the Mental Health Act and improve relationships between service users and mental health professionals.
Black people are detained under the Mental Health Act more than any other ethnic group and tend to have a lack of say in their mental health care, resulting in a lack of trust in health services.
Through making resource available for ACD production we aim to:
- reduce compulsory admissions under the Mental Health Act
- improve the experience of Black people using mental health services
- better the therapeutic relationships between service users, carers/supporters and mental health staff
- reduce coercion in mental health care and give Black service users a say in their mental health care
For more information about the study contact: Jonathan Simpson (Research Assistant): email@example.com
Dr Shubulade Smith and Dr Tony Davies discussing ACDs: Advance Choice Documents (vimeo.com)
Short video clips:
What happens when the treating team do not follow the ACD? (3:21): https://vimeo.com/708133467/fce5528321
What if a service user changes their mind? (1:38): https://vimeo.com/708135358/ec7859c670
What if a service user is skeptical about ACDs? (2:48): https://vimeo.com/708136036/2cc1bd49a5
Completing ACDs in collaboration (2:41): https://vimeo.com/708196328/d3500129e0
How ACDS may potentially improve relationships and understanding (2:10): https://vimeo.com/708139145/71b136d33f
Evidence for ACDs
- Barriers and facilitators to implementing Advance Statements for people with Mental Illness: A systematic review applying the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research. Lowry S, MSc Implementation Science dissertation thesis, 2020.
- Stephenson L, Gergel T, Ruck Keene A, Larry R, Owen G. The PACT advance decision-making template: preparing for Mental Health Act reforms with co-production, focus groups and consultation. Int J Law Psychiatry Jul-Aug 2020;71:101563. doi: 10.1016/j.ijlp.2020.101563..
- Owen GS, Gergel T, Stephenson LA, Hussain O, Rifkin L, Keene AR. Advance decision-making in mental health – Suggestions for legal reform in England and Wales. Int J Law Psychiatry 2019;64:162–77.
- Molyneaux E, Turner A, Candy B, Landau S, Johnson S, Lloyd-Evans B. Crisis-planning interventions for people with psychotic illness or bipolar disorder: systematic review and meta-analyses. BJPsych Open 2019;5:e53. https://doi.org/10.1192/bjo.2019.28.
- de Jong MH, Kamperman AM, Oorschot M, Priebe S, Bramer W, van de Sande R, et al. Interventions to reduce compulsory psychiatric admissions: A systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA Psychiatry 2016;73:657–64.
- Borschmann R, Barret B, Jellier JM, Byford S, Henderson C, Hogg J, Phillips R, Hogg J, Rose D, Slade M, Sutherby K, Szmukler G, Thornicroft G and Moran P. Joint crisis plans for people with borderline personality disorder: feasibility and outcomes in a randomised controlled trial, British Journal of Psychiatry, 202, 357–364, 2013.
- Henderson C, Farrelly S, Flach C, Borschmann R, Birchwood M, Thornicroft G, Waheed, W, Szmukler, G. Informed, advance refusals of treatment by people with severe mental illness in a randomised controlled trial of joint crisis plans: demand, content and correlates. BMC Psychiatry, 17:376 DOI 10.1186/s12888-017-1542-5 published 27th November 2017.
- Farrelly S, Lester H, Rose D, Birchwood M; Marshall M, Waheed W, Henderson RC, Szmukler G and Thornicroft G. Barriers to shared decision making: qualitative study of the Joint Crisis Plan for psychosis. Health Expectations, published online 27th April 2015, doi: 10.1111/hex.12368.
- Farrelly S, Lester H, Rose D, Birchwood M; Marshall M, Waheed W, Henderson RC, Szmukler G and Thornicroft G. Improving Therapeutic Relationships: Joint Crisis Planning For Individuals With Psychotic Disorders. Qualitative Health Research, DOI: 10.1177/1049732314566320, published online 13th January 2015.
- Farrelly S, Brown G, Rose D, Doherty E, Henderson RC, Birchwood M; Marshall M, Waheed W, Szmukler G, & Thornicroft G. What service users with psychotic disorders want in a mental health crisis or relapse: thematic analysis of Joint Crisis Plans. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 49(10): 1609-17, 2014.
- Farrelly S, Brown, GE, Flach, C, Barley, E, Laugharne, R, Henderson, C. User-held personalised information for routine care of people with severe mental illness. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 10 (05.10.2013), 2013.
- Farrelly S, Szmukler G Henderson C, Birchwood M, Marshall M, Waheed W, Finnecy C, Thornicroft G. Individualisation in crisis planning for people with psychotic disorders. Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences, Sept 10 2013. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S2045796013000401.
- Thornicroft G, Farrelly S, Szmukler G, Birchwood M, Waheed W, Flach C, Barrett B, Byford S, Henderson C, Sutherby K, Lester H, Rose D, Dunn G, Leese M and Marshall M. Randomised controlled trial of joint crisis plans to reduce compulsory treatment for people with psychosis: clinical outcomes. Lancet, May 11;381(9878):1634-41 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(13)60105-1, 2013.
- Thornicroft G, Farrelly S, Birchwood M, Marshall M, Szmukler G, Waheed W, Byford S, Dunn G, Henderson C, Lester H, Leese M, Rose D and Sutherby K. CRIMSON [CRisis plan IMpact: Subjective and Objective coercion and eNgagement] Protocol: A randomised controlled trial of joint crisis plans to reduce compulsory treatment of people with psychosis. Trials, 11: 102-8, 2010.
- Henderson C, Swanson JW, Szmukler G, Thornicroft G and Zinkler M. A typology of advance statements in mental health care. Psychiatric Services, 59(1):63-71, 2008.
- Henderson C, Flood C, Leese M, Thornicroft G, Sutherby K And Szmukler G. Views Of Patients And Providers On Joint Crisis Plans: Single Blind Randomized Controlled Trial. Social Psychiatry And Psychiatric Epidemiology, 44:369-76, 2009.
- Flood C, Byford S, Henderson C, Leese M, Thornicroft G, Sutherby K, Szmukler G. Joint Crisis Plans For People With Psychosis: Economic Evaluation of an RCT. BMJ, 333:729-732, 2006.
- Henderson C, Flood C, Leese M, Thornicroft G, Sutherby K, Szmukler G. Effect Of Joint Crisis Plans On Use Of Compulsion In Psychiatric Treatment: Single Blind RCT. BMJ, 329: 136-8, 2004.
- K Sutherby 1, G I Szmukler, A Halpern, M Alexander, G Thornicroft, C Johnson, S Wright. A study of 'crisis cards' in a community psychiatric service. Acta Psychiatr Scand . 1999 Jul;100(1):56-61. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0447.1999.tb10914.x.
- Draft Bill recommendations on Advance Choice Documents (pages 78-82): https://committees.parliament.uk/publications/33599/documents/182904/default/